Chapter 5: The Biomechanics of Human Skeletal Articulations
1.
Which of the following is not associated with synarthrodial joints?
A.
typically weak
B.
fibrous
C.
immovable
D.
sutures of the skull


2.
Which of the following is an example of a uniaxial joint?
A.
hip
B.
carpals
C.
elbow
D.
base of thumb


3.
Which of the following is associated with triaxial joints?
A.
ball and socket
B.
3 axes
C.
hip
D.
all of the above


4.
Which of the following terms does not fit with the others?
A.
carpals
B.
short bones
C.
gliding movements
D.
uniaxial


5.
The knee is an example of which type joint?
A.
fibrous
B.
synarthroses
C.
synovial
D.
amphiarthroses


6.
A triaxial joint allows which of the following movements?
A.
flexion and extension
B.
abduction and adduction
C.
rotation and circumduction
D.
all of the above


7.
Hinge joints have how many axes?
A.
none
B.
1
C.
2
D.
3


8.
Which of the following are functions of articular cartilage?
A.
minimize friction and wear at a joint
B.
protect against joint dislocation
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


9.
Which of the following are examples of articular fibrocartilage?
A.
the intervertebral discs
B.
the menisci of the knee
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


10.
Which of the following characterizes the "close-packed position" at a joint?
A.
joint stability is minimum
B.
muscular tension is maximum
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


11.
Which of the following is/are true regarding amphiarthrodial joints?
A.
Hyaline cartilage holds the bones together.
B.
They are slightly moveable.
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


12.
Which of the following refers to the stretching of muscles, tendons, and ligaments by a force other than tension in the antagonist muscles?
A.
active stretching
B.
passive stretching
C.
ballistic stretching
D.
none of the above


13.
Which type of flexibility accompanies the ROM achieved by actively contracting the antagonist muscle?
A.
static flexibility
B.
dynamic flexibility
C.
passive stretching
D.
none of the above


14.
Which of the following does not affect the range of motion at a joint?
A.
the degree of tonus of surrounding muscles and ligaments
B.
the shape of the articular surfaces
C.
the exercise habits of the individual
D.
the number of proprioceptors present at the joint


15.
Which of the following heightens the risk of injury?
A.
low flexibility
B.
high flexibility
C.
both A & B
D.
none of the above


16.
Where are Golgi tendon organs located?
A.
in tendons
B.
in the junctions between muscles and their tendons
C.
interspersed throughout the fibers of muscles
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


17.
The stretch reflex, or myotatic reflex, is provoked by activation of which of the following in a stretched muscle?
A.
muscle spindles
B.
Golgi tendon organs
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


18.
The technique of muscle stretching known as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) is based on responses elicited from which of the following?
A.
Golgi tendon organs
B.
muscle spindles
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


19.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation is an example of what type of stretching?
A.
active stretching
B.
passive stretching
C.
ballistic stretching
D.
none of the above


20.
Which of the following joint injuries is accompanied by inflammation?
A.
sprains
B.
dislocations
C.
bursitis
D.
all of the above


21.
Which of the following are characteristics of diarthrodial joints?
A.
Articulating bone surfaces are covered with articular cartilage.
B.
An articular capsule surrounds the joint.
C.
They are lubricated by synovial fluid.
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


22.
Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) of bursae?
A.
They are associated with synovial joints.
B.
They separate tendons from bones to reduce friction.
C.
They separate skin from bones to reduce friction.
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


23.
Which of the following is/are characteristic(s) of tendon sheaths?
A.
They are synovial structures.
B.
They surround tendons.
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


24.
Which of the following contain synovial fluid?
A.
bursae
B.
tendon sheaths
C.
articular cartilage
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


25.
Which connective tissue attaches muscle to bone?
A.
ligaments
B.
tendons
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


26.
What characteristics do tendons and ligaments share with muscles?
A.
extensibility
B.
elasticity
C.
contractility
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


27.
Which statement(s) is/are true?
A.
Exercise can increase the size and strength of tendons.
B.
Exercise can increase the size and strength of ligaments.
C.
Exercise can increase the strength of tendon junction with a bone.
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


28.
The “ability of a joint to resist abnormal displacement” defines what?
A.
joint stability
B.
joint flexibility
C.
loose-packed position
D.
none of the above


29.
Joint stability is affected by which of the following?
A.
shape of the articulating bones
B.
arrangement and size of ligaments
C.
area of contact between the bones
D.
all of the above


30.
Which of the following statements is/are true?
A.
The hip is more stable than the shoulder.
B.
The shoulder has more range of motion than the hip.
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


31.
What is the result when a ligament is stretched beyond its elastic limit?
A.
A sprain occurs.
B.
Joint stability may be temporarily compromised.
C.
Joint stability may be permanently compromised.
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


32.
Which statement(s) is/are true?
A.
When muscles are fatigued, ligaments are at a greater risk of injury.
B.
When ligaments are fatigued, muscles are at a greater risk of injury.
C.
both A and B
D.
neither A nor B


33.
A goniometer is used to directly measure what?
A.
muscle flexibility
B.
joint range of motion
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


34.
Range of motion at a joint is influenced by which of the following?
A.
shape of the articulating surfaces
B.
relative laxity and extensibility of the muscles crossing the joint
C.
fluid content of the cartilage within the joint
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above


35.
The term “hypermobile” is used to describe what?
A.
a joint with an unusually large range of motion
B.
a joint with an unusually small range of motion
C.
a gymnast
D.
a sprinter


36.
Golgi tendon organs respond in which of the following ways?
A.
inhibit tension in the activated muscle
B.
initiate tension in the antagonist muscle
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


37.
Which of the following activates the muscle spindles?
A.
knee-jerk test
B.
ballistic stretching
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above


38.
Which type of stretching demonstrates greater range of motion?
A.
active stretching
B.
passive stretching
C.
A and B are equal
D.
need more information


39.
Which type(s) of arthritis is/are non-inflammatory?
A.
rheumatoid arthritis
B.
osteoarthritis
C.
both A and B
D.
none of the above (both A and B are inflammatory)


40.
Which of the following is true regarding bursitis?
A.
overuse injury
B.
frictional irritation in one or more bursae
C.
inflammation
D.
both A and B
E.
all of the above



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